What is diabetes?

Last updated: 2021-03-09  |  1552 Views  | 

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body cells are abnormal in the process of converting blood sugar into energy. This process involves insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas to regulate blood sugar levels. When sugar is not used, it causes blood sugar levels to rise above normal levels.

Diabetes is divided into 4 types according to the cause of the disease  

1. Type 1 diabetes (type 1 diabetes mellitus, T1DM) is caused by the destruction of pancreatic cells from the body's immune system. Insulin deficiency is often found in children.

2. Type 2 diabetes (type 2 diabetes mellitus, T1DM) is the most common type in 95 percent of all diabetes patients. Caused by insulin resistance It is often found in adults who are overweight or obese.  

3. Gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is diabetes that occurs while pregnant. Usually occurs in the 2-3 trimesters of the pregnancy.

4. Diabetes that has specific causes (specific types of diabetes due to other causes) can have many causes, such as genetic disease. Pancreatic disease Endocrine diseases, some drugs, etc.

by the diagnosis of diabetes. It can be done by one of the following 4 methods:

1. There are obvious diabetes symptoms: thirst, frequent urination, and large amounts Weight loss for no reason Together with a blood glucose test at any time Fasting is not necessary if it is ≥200 mg / dL.

2. Fasting blood glucose (at least 8 hours) ≥ 126 mg / dL. 

3. Glucose tolerance test. 75 g glucose was taken and blood glucose was checked at 2 hours if it was ≥ 200 mg / dL.

4. Accumulated glucose (A1C) test ≥ 6.5%. Certification according to the specified standards Which is still rare in Thailand Therefore, this method is not recommended.

According to the 2017 Diabetes Association's Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus, the diagnosis of Diabetes Section 2-4 requires re-confirmation using a new blood sample. In the same way or different on the next day However, the American Diabetes Association's 2019 clinical practice guidelines have changed that It can be confirmed again using the same or new blood sample. To make a diabetes diagnosis

         Once diagnosed, diabetes should be treated on an ongoing basis. With the main goal of reducing long-term complications from diabetes Achieved by controlling sugar levels Targeted glucose currently has an ideal value for each patient. Depending on age Period of diabetes The presence of complications Illness and joint disease Including a history of low blood sugar If you have diabetes for a long time There are no complications or associated diseases. Should control glucose levels close to normal or A1C levels <6.5% (if possible) or <7% while those with long-term diabetes and complications. Or severe multiple joint disease The target of A1C is approximately 7-8%. In those who are over 65 years of age without co-disease The A1C target should be <7% if there is a co-disease but still self-help. The A1C target should be 7-7.5% if the elderly are vulnerable. May give you an A1C target of up to 8.5%, so setting an A1C target.

Thank you for the health article from 

Asst. Prof. Dr. Pimjai Antanon

, Diabetes Association of Thailand

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